Learn more about the chromosome using these hands-on chromosome diagrams that we have collected for you in high quality! In these 101 Diagramss, the detailed structures of the chromosome are illustrated in a high quality pictures. Chromosomes are thread-like molecules that carry hereditary information for everything from height to eye color. They are the packaged structures of DNA and histone proteins. The structure and location of chromosomes are among the chief differences between viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Take a look at the following structure diagram of chromosome!
As you can see in the above chromosome diagram, each chromosome is made up of two chromatids which are joined to each other at a small constricted region called the centromere. Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division. The centromere shown in the structure diagrams above divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.”
The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes. They are made of protein and one molecule of DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic instructions, passed down from parents. In humans, animals, and plants, most chromosomes are arranged in pairs within the nucleus of a cell. Humans have 22 of these chromosome pairs, called autosomes.
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